1st Page

Animal Frontiers Abstract - Feature Articles

From first- to third-generation biofuels: Challenges of producing a commodity from a biomass of increasing complexity


This article in

  1. Vol. 3 No. 2, p. 6-11
    Published: December 22, 2014

    * Corresponding author(s):
Request Permissions

  1. Roland Arthur Lee and
  2. Jean-Michel Lavoie *
  1. Université de Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada


  • Biofuels, in conjunction to their positive carbon balance with regards to fossil fuels, also represent a significant potential for sustainability and economic growth of industrialized countries because they can be generated from locally available renewable material.

  • Biofuels are usually classified as follows:

    • 1. First-generation biofuels are directly related to a biomass that is generally edible.

    • 2. Second-generation biofuels are defined as fuels produced from a wide array of different feedstock, ranging from lignocellulosic feedstocks to municipal solid wastes.

    • 3. Third-generation biofuels are, at this point, related to algal biomass but could to a certain extent be linked to utilization of CO2 as feedstock.

  • Scaling second and third-generation biofuel processes thus requires solid economics that are directly dependent on optimized carbon utilization that relies on the production of fuels (commodities), as well as high value co-products.

  Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left.

Copyright © 2013. © 2013 Lee and Lavoie