European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC); n = 519,978 beef, pork, mutton/lamb, horse, goat all meat products including ham, bacon, sausages and a small part of minced meat in ready-to-eat products Ward et al., 2016
Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort (CPS II); n = 148,610 bacon, sausage, hamburgers, cheeseburgers, meatloaf or casserole with ground beef, beef (steaks, roasts, etc., including sandwiches), beef stew or pot pie with carrots or other vegetables, liver including chicken livers, pork including chops, roast, hot dogs, ham, bologna, salami, lunch-meat bacon, sausage, hot dogs, ham, bologna, salami, lunch-meat Chao et al., 2005
Women’s Health Initiative (WHI); n = 93,676 red meat not defined, but associations with outcome presented processed meat not defined, associations not reported Thomson et al., 2011
Nurses’ Health Study (NHS); n = 87,108 beef or lamb as main dish, pork as main dish, hamburger, beef, pork, or lamb as a sandwich or mixed dish bacon, beef or pork hot dogs, salami, bologna, or other processed meat sandwiches, and other processed red meats such as sausage, kielbasa, etc. Bernstein et al., 2015
Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective (JPHC); n = 80,658 beef steak, grilled beef, stewed beef, stir-fried pork, deep-fried pork, stewed pork in Western style, stewed pork in Japanese style, pork in soup, pork liver, ham, sausage or Weiner sausage, bacon, luncheon meat, chicken liver ham, sausage or Weiner sausage, bacon, luncheon meat, chicken liver Takachi et al., 2011
Shanghai Women’s Health Study; n = 73,224 red meat not defined, but associations with outcome presented processed meat not defined, no related outcomes reported Lee et al., 2009
Swedish Mammography Cohort; n = 61,433 total red meat consisted of: whole beef, chopped meat, minced meat, bacon, hot dogs, ham or other lunch meat, blood pudding, kidney or liver, liver pate bacon, hot dogs, ham or other lunch meat and blood pudding Larrson et al., 2005
The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC); n = 51,683 beef and pork not defined, but associations with outcome reported Nagao et al., 2012
Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS); n = 46,461 beef, pork or lamb as main dish, hamburger and beef, pork or lamb as a sandwich or mixed dish bacon, beef or pork hot dogs, sausage, salami, bologna or other processed meat sandwiches, other processed red meats such as sausage, kielbasa, etc. Cao et al., 2017
The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS); n = 41,514 beef, veal, beef steak, mixed dishes with lamb, mixed dishes with beef, pork chops or roast, rabbit or other game, other offal meats, lamb chops or roast ham, bacon, corned beef, salami or continental sausages, sausages or frankfurters Amirul Islam et al., 2014
The top 10 relevant cohorts, based on sample size, were selected. Cohorts typically publish multiple reports. The source selected to represent a cohort provided the most detailed information regarding meat products.