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Pathway parameters and explanatory variables evaluated using a random effects meta-regression approach

 
Pathway parameter Explanatory variables
Sex Female;
Surgical castrate;
Entire male;
Immunocastrated male
Genotype - grouped Berkshire;
Duroc;
Hampshire;
Pietrain;
White; > 50%
Halothane gene Homozygous dominant (NN);
Heterozygous (Nn);
Homozygous recessive (nn)
Hampshire gene rn+;
RN-
Feeding level – during grower (G) and finisher (F) phase Ad libitum GF;
Ad libitum G Restricted F
Restricted G Ad libitum F
Restricted GF
Metabolic modifiers
    pST No pST;
pST
    Ractopamine No ractopamine;
Ractopamine (≤ 10 mg/kg)
Housing Indoor/conventional;
Barn/Ecoshelter;
Outdoor/free range
Stunning method Carbon dioxide;
Electrical
Electrical stimulation No electrical stimulation;
Electrical stimulation (Constant current – 4 min post-slaughter; High voltage – 20 in post-slaughter; low voltage– 3 to 5 min post-slaughter)
Hanging method Achilles;
Aitchbone/tenderstretching
Chilling 0 to 4°C for 18 to 24 h post slaughter (conventional);
Rapid chill then conventional;
Warm/ambient chill then conventional
Ageing period ≤ 2 d;
3 to 7 d;
> 7 d
Moisture infusion No moisture infusion;
Moisture infusion
Endpoint temperature 65 to 69°C;
70 to 74°C;
75 to 79°C;
> 80°C
Cut type Chop/steak;
Roast



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Number of eligible studies investigating effects of various pathway parameters on sensory tenderness, juiciness, and flavor and/or shear force

 
Muscle No. of studies meeting study criterion
M. longissimus dorsi 294
M. semimembranosus 27
M. biceps femoris 21
M. psoas major 9
M. gluteus medius 8
M. semitendinosus 6
M. triceps brachii 4
M. infraspinatus 1



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Estimated means and average standard error of difference (SED) from meta-regression analysis on sensory tenderness, juiciness, and flavor scores of pork and objective shear force measures for various factors

 
Factor Explanatory variable Tenderness Juiciness Flavor Shear force, kg
Sex
    n (studies) 48 45 38 53
    n (comparisons) 230 219 158 197
    F statistic 1.93 0.46 0.69 2.38
    n.df: d.d.f 3,189.9 3,180.4 3,120.8 3,146.6
Entire male 54.1 48.6 51.8 4.90
Female 54.8 48.4 53.1 4.66
Immunocastrated male 57.2 50.5 53.5 4.53
Physical castrate 56.8 48.9 53.6 4.61
SED 1.54 1.54 1.48 0.146
P-value 0.13 0.71 0.56 0.072
    n (studies) 48 45 38 53
    n (comparisons) 230 219 158 197
    F statistic 2.88 0.28 1.04 3.38
    n.df: d.d.f 2,190.3 2,180.8 2,121.9 2,146.5
Entire male 54.1 48,6 51.8 4.92
Female 54.8 48.4 53.1 4.65
Physical castrate + Immunocastrated male 56.9 49.2 53.6 4.61
SED 1.14 1.16 1.18 0.111
P-value 0.059 0.76 0.36 0.037
Genotype
    n (studies) 24 27 20 28
    n (comparisons) 117 135 95 143
    F statistic 3.06 4.84 1.30 12.20
    n.df: d.d.f 4,94.6 4,107.8 4,71.9 4,116.2
Berkshire 65.8 53.3 65.3 3.83
> 50% Duroc 60.3 50.6 60.6 4.84
Hampshire 63.7 54.7 61.8 4.02
Pietrain 59.2 48.7 60.2 5.85
White 57.3 48.2 59.6 5.28
SED 3.41 2.32 2.27 0.352
P-value 0.020 0.001 0.30 < 0.001
Halothane status
    n (studies) 13 11 8 16
    n (comparisons) 41 48 27 78
    F statistic 3.01 6.95 0.53 6.35
    n.df: d.d.f 2,28.3 2,34.0 2,17.1 2,61.5
Homozygous dominant 58.3 53.6 52.2 4.50
Heterozygous 56.6 49.6 53.0 4.84
Homozygous recessive 52.6 44.3 50.0 5.50
SED 2.13 2.33 2.64 0.27
P-value 0.065 0.003 0.60 0.003
Hampshire gene
    n (studies) 3 3 4
    n (comparisons) 9 9 15
    F statistic 32.07 0.58 4.87
    n.df: d.d.f 1,5.0 1,5.0 1,10.0
rn- 60.4 50.1 5.72
RN+ 65.8 50.7 5.16
SED 0.96 0.86 0.252
P-value 0.002 0.48 0.052
Plane of nutrition
    n (studies) 14 13 11 11
    n (comparisons) 59 56 39 59
    F statistic 2.66 0.65 0.44 2.56
    n.df: d.d.f 3,43.3 3,40.8 3,25.1 3,46.8
Ad libitum Grower (G) Finisher (F) 54.1 45.2 47.4 5.17
Ad libitum G Restricted F 50.8 43.7 47.1 5.58
Restricted G Ad lib F 53.4 43.8 47.4 5.41
Restricted GF 51.2 44.0 46.8 5.59
SED 2.003 1.983 1.020 0.383
P-value 0.060 0.59 0.73 0.067
Housing type
    n (studies) 7 7 8 17
    n (comparisons) 21 21 20 57
    F statistic 0.38 0.24 1.43 0.23
    n.df: d.d.f 2,12.3 2,10.3 2,8.1 3,37.7
Barn/deep litter 69.2 55.7 61.6 4.55
Indoor/conventional 66.3 57.0 62.5 4.65
Outdoor 68.6 58.1 64.0 4.75
Outdoor access 4.77
SED 5.90 3.52 1.65 0.272
P-value 0.70 0.79 0.29 0.88
Ractopamine
    n (studies) 8 8 7 15
    n (comparisons) 35 35 33 50
    F statistic 1.61 0.29 0.35 5.64
    n.df: d.d.f 2,27.6 2,26.2 2,24.1 2,41.2
No ractopamine 58.3 51.5 52.4 4.13
Ractopamine – 5 mg/kg 55.7 49.9 51.6 4.65
Ractopamine – 7.5 to 10 mg/kg 54.6 50.7 51.4 4.54
SED 2.81 2.28 1.59 0.230
P-value 0.22 0.75 0.71 0.013
pST
    n (studies) 8 8 6 13
    n (comparisons) 74 74 50 74
    F statistic 13.79 6.22 3.57 6.11
    n.df: d.d.f 1,64.3 1,67.5 1,42.2 1,61.2
No pST 61.47 54.5 61.2 4.39
pST 55.82 50.8 58.8 4.81
SED 1.52 1.51 1.27 0.168
P-value < 0.001 0.015 0.066 0.016
Stunning method
    n (studies) 5
    n (comparisons) 51
    F statistic 0.66
    n.df: d.d.f 1,46.9
Carbon dioxide 6.59
Electrical 6.33
SED 0.314
P-value 0.42
Electrical stimulation
    n (studies) 5 5 7
    n (comparisons) 35 26 76
    F statistic 1.43 6.73 7.56
    n.df: d.d.f 3,29.8 3,18.9 3,66.2
No stimulation 50.3 50.6 5.91
Constant current – 2 to 4 min post-slaughter 56.8 54.3 5.29
High voltage – 20 min post-slaughter 52.7 45.9 4.90
Low voltage – 3 to 5 min post-slaughter 50.5 49.0 4.74
SED 5.14 3.18 0.437
P-value 0.25 0.014 < 0.001
Hanging method
    n (studies) 3 3 3
    n (comparisons) 48 48 44
    F statistic 8.30 1.95 10.71
    n.df: d.d.f 1,43.9 1,44.0 1,40.0
Achilles 50.4 45.6 4.93
Aitchbone/tenderstretch 55.5 47.2 4.26
SED 1.75 1.13 0.203
P-value 0.006 0.17 0.002
Chilling
    n (studies) 6 5 3 7
    n (comparisons) 23 14 10 43
    F statistic 4.27 0.23 0.14 8.07
    n.df: d.d.f 2,16.4 2,7.6 1,6.1 2,37.2
0 to 4°C for 18 to 24 h (conv) 54.4 49.0 57.6 6.13
Rapid chilling then conv 53.3 49.8 58.4 4.96
Warm chilling then conv 46.8 51.5 4.64
SED 3.38 3.64 2.03 0.581
P-value 0.032 0.80 0.725 0.001
Ageing period
    n (studies) 13 13 7 21
    n (comparisons) 109 108 80 234
    F statistic 6.56 1.04 7.11 43.13
    n.df: d.d.f 2,100.3 2,99.6 2,74.8 2,215.8
≤ 2 d 55.2 52.5 60.2 5.40
3 to 7 d 60.0 53.5 63.3 4.44
> 7 d 59.4 50.6 54.9 4.18
SED 2.41 1.98 2.35 0.147
P-value 0.002 0.36 0.001 < 0.001
Moisture infusion
    n (studies) 5 5 6 5
    n (comparisons) 34 34 38 34
    F statistic 27.59 20.28 4.47 7.10
    n.df: d.d.f 1,28.2 1,28.7 1,31.4 1,29.7
No moisture infusion 49.6 54.1 60.7 4.20
Moisture infusion 63.0 64.6 65.5 3.31
SED 2.53 2.31 2.30 0.331
P-value < 0.001 < 0.001 0.043 0.012
Endpoint temperature
    n (studies) 10 16 11 4
    n (comparisons) 49 112 88 18
    F statistic 4.14 31.23 4.37 1.40
    n.df: d.d.f 3,39.7 3,95.1 3,74.9 1,13.4
65 to 69°C 65.5 50.9 46.7
70 to 74°C 60.7 48.2 48.9 3.51
75 to 79°C 57.9 45.0 47.7 3.70
> 80°C 53.0 38.5 44.2
SED 3.48 1.63 1.80 0.152
P-value 0.012 < 0.001 0.007 0.26
Cut type
    n (studies) 4 8 8
    n (comparisons) 30 83 70
    F statistic 27.77 2.43 0.03
    n.df: d.d.f 1,24.4 1,80.3 1,62.7
Chop/steak 54.5 38.7 47.6
Roast 64.2 35.4 47.9
SED 1.84 2.14 1.80
P-value < 0.001 0.12 0.87
Sex
    n (studies) 48 45 38 53
    n (comparisons) 230 219 158 197
    F statistic 1.93 0.46 0.69 2.38
    n.df: d.d.f 3,189.9 3,180.4 3,120.8 3,146.6
Entire male 54.1 48.6 51.8 4.90
Female 54.8 48.4 53.1 4.66
Immunocastrated male 57.2 50.5 53.5 4.53
Physical castrate 56.8 48.9 53.6 4.61
SED 1.54 1.54 1.48 0.146
P-value 0.13 0.71 0.56 0.072
    n (studies) 48 45 38 53
    n (comparisons) 230 219 158 197
    F statistic 2.88 0.28 1.04 3.38
    n.df: d.d.f 2,190.3 2,180.8 2,121.9 2,146.5
Entire male 54.1 48,6 51.8 4.92
Female 54.8 48.4 53.1 4.65
Physical castrate + Immunocastrated male 56.9 49.2 53.6 4.61
SED 1.14 1.16 1.18 0.111
P-value 0.059 0.76 0.36 0.037
Genotype
    n (studies) 24 27 20 28
    n (comparisons) 117 135 95 143
    F statistic 3.06 4.84 1.30 12.20
    n.df: d.d.f 4,94.6 4,107.8 4,71.9 4,116.2
Berkshire 65.8 53.3 65.3 3.83
> 50% Duroc 60.3 50.6 60.6 4.84
Hampshire 63.7 54.7 61.8 4.02
Pietrain 59.2 48.7 60.2 5.85
White 57.3 48.2 59.6 5.28
SED 3.41 2.32 2.27 0.352
P-value 0.020 0.001 0.30 < 0.001
Halothane status
    n (studies) 13 11 8 16
    n (comparisons) 41 48 27 78
    F statistic 3.01 6.95 0.53 6.35
    n.df: d.d.f 2,28.3 2,34.0 2,17.1 2,61.5
Homozygous dominant 58.3 53.6 52.2 4.50
Heterozygous 56.6 49.6 53.0 4.84
Homozygous recessive 52.6 44.3 50.0 5.50
SED 2.13 2.33 2.64 0.27
P-value 0.065 0.003 0.60 0.003
Hampshire gene
    n (studies) 3 3 4
    n (comparisons) 9 9 15
    F statistic 32.07 0.58 4.87
    n.df: d.d.f 1,5.0 1,5.0 1,10.0
rn- 60.4 50.1 5.72
RN+ 65.8 50.7 5.16
SED 0.96 0.86 0.252
P-value 0.002 0.48 0.052
Plane of nutrition
    n (studies) 14 13 11 11
    n (comparisons) 59 56 39 59
    F statistic 2.66 0.65 0.44 2.56
    n.df: d.d.f 3,43.3 3,40.8 3,25.1 3,46.8
Ad libitum Grower (G) Finisher (F) 54.1 45.2 47.4 5.17
Ad libitum G Restricted F 50.8 43.7 47.1 5.58
Restricted G Ad lib F 53.4 43.8 47.4 5.41
Restricted GF 51.2 44.0 46.8 5.59
SED 2.003 1.983 1.020 0.383
P-value 0.060 0.59 0.73 0.067
Housing type
    n (studies) 7 7 8 17
    n (comparisons) 21 21 20 57
    F statistic 0.38 0.24 1.43 0.23
    n.df: d.d.f 2,12.3 2,10.3 2,8.1 3,37.7
Barn/deep litter 69.2 55.7 61.6 4.55
Indoor/conventional 66.3 57.0 62.5 4.65
Outdoor 68.6 58.1 64.0 4.75
Outdoor access 4.77
SED 5.90 3.52 1.65 0.272
P-value 0.70 0.79 0.29 0.88
Ractopamine
    n (studies) 8 8 7 15
    n (comparisons) 35 35 33 50
    F statistic 1.61 0.29 0.35 5.64
    n.df: d.d.f 2,27.6 2,26.2 2,24.1 2,41.2
No ractopamine 58.3 51.5 52.4 4.13
Ractopamine – 5 mg/kg 55.7 49.9 51.6 4.65
Ractopamine – 7.5 to 10 mg/kg 54.6 50.7 51.4 4.54
SED 2.81 2.28 1.59 0.230
P-value 0.22 0.75 0.71 0.013
pST
    n (studies) 8 8 6 13
    n (comparisons) 74 74 50 74
    F statistic 13.79 6.22 3.57 6.11
    n.df: d.d.f 1,64.3 1,67.5 1,42.2 1,61.2
No pST 61.47 54.5 61.2 4.39
pST 55.82 50.8 58.8 4.81
SED 1.52 1.51 1.27 0.168
P-value < 0.001 0.015 0.066 0.016
Stunning method
    n (studies) 5
    n (comparisons) 51
    F statistic 0.66
    n.df: d.d.f 1,46.9
Carbon dioxide 6.59
Electrical 6.33
SED 0.314
P-value 0.42
Electrical stimulation
    n (studies) 5 5 7
    n (comparisons) 35 26 76
    F statistic 1.43 6.73 7.56
    n.df: d.d.f 3,29.8 3,18.9 3,66.2
No stimulation 50.3 50.6 5.91
Constant current – 2 to 4 min post-slaughter 56.8 54.3 5.29
High voltage – 20 min post-slaughter 52.7 45.9 4.90
Low voltage – 3 to 5 min post-slaughter 50.5 49.0 4.74
SED 5.14 3.18 0.437
P-value 0.25 0.014 < 0.001
Hanging method
    n (studies) 3 3 3
    n (comparisons) 48 48 44
    F statistic 8.30 1.95 10.71
    n.df: d.d.f 1,43.9 1,44.0 1,40.0
Achilles 50.4 45.6 4.93
Aitchbone/tenderstretch 55.5 47.2 4.26
SED 1.75 1.13 0.203
P-value 0.006 0.17 0.002
Chilling
    n (studies) 6 5 3 7
    n (comparisons) 23 14 10 43
    F statistic 4.27 0.23 0.14 8.07
    n.df: d.d.f 2,16.4 2,7.6 1,6.1 2,37.2
0 to 4°C for 18 to 24 h (conv) 54.4 49.0 57.6 6.13
Rapid chilling then conv 53.3 49.8 58.4 4.96
Warm chilling then conv 46.8 51.5 4.64
SED 3.38 3.64 2.03 0.581
P-value 0.032 0.80 0.725 0.001
Ageing period
    n (studies) 13 13 7 21
    n (comparisons) 109 108 80 234
    F statistic 6.56 1.04 7.11 43.13
    n.df: d.d.f 2,100.3 2,99.6 2,74.8 2,215.8
≤ 2 d 55.2 52.5 60.2 5.40
3 to 7 d 60.0 53.5 63.3 4.44
> 7 d 59.4 50.6 54.9 4.18
SED 2.41 1.98 2.35 0.147
P-value 0.002 0.36 0.001 < 0.001
Moisture infusion
    n (studies) 5 5 6 5
    n (comparisons) 34 34 38 34
    F statistic 27.59 20.28 4.47 7.10
    n.df: d.d.f 1,28.2 1,28.7 1,31.4 1,29.7
No moisture infusion 49.6 54.1 60.7 4.20
Moisture infusion 63.0 64.6 65.5 3.31
SED 2.53 2.31 2.30 0.331
P-value < 0.001 < 0.001 0.043 0.012
Endpoint temperature
    n (studies) 10 16 11 4
    n (comparisons) 49 112 88 18
    F statistic 4.14 31.23 4.37 1.40
    n.df: d.d.f 3,39.7 3,95.1 3,74.9 1,13.4
65 to 69°C 65.5 50.9 46.7
70 to 74°C 60.7 48.2 48.9 3.51
75 to 79°C 57.9 45.0 47.7 3.70
> 80°C 53.0 38.5 44.2
SED 3.48 1.63 1.80 0.152
P-value 0.012 < 0.001 0.007 0.26
Cut type
    n (studies) 4 8 8
    n (comparisons) 30 83 70
    F statistic 27.77 2.43 0.03
    n.df: d.d.f 1,24.4 1,80.3 1,62.7
Chop/steak 54.5 38.7 47.6
Roast 64.2 35.4 47.9
SED 1.84 2.14 1.80
P-value < 0.001 0.12 0.87
Sex
    n (studies) 48 45 38 53
    n (comparisons) 230 219 158 197
    F statistic 1.93 0.46 0.69 2.38
    n.df: d.d.f 3,189.9 3,180.4 3,120.8 3,146.6
Entire male 54.1 48.6 51.8 4.90
Female 54.8 48.4 53.1 4.66
Immunocastrated male 57.2 50.5 53.5 4.53
Physical castrate 56.8 48.9 53.6 4.61
SED 1.54 1.54 1.48 0.146
P-value 0.13 0.71 0.56 0.072
    n (studies) 48 45 38 53
    n (comparisons) 230 219 158 197
    F statistic 2.88 0.28 1.04 3.38
    n.df: d.d.f 2,190.3 2,180.8 2,121.9 2,146.5
Entire male 54.1 48,6 51.8 4.92
Female 54.8 48.4 53.1 4.65
Physical castrate + Immunocastrated male 56.9 49.2 53.6 4.61
SED 1.14 1.16 1.18 0.111
P-value 0.059 0.76 0.36 0.037
Genotype
    n (studies) 24 27 20 28
    n (comparisons) 117 135 95 143
    F statistic 3.06 4.84 1.30 12.20
    n.df: d.d.f 4,94.6 4,107.8 4,71.9 4,116.2
Berkshire 65.8 53.3 65.3 3.83
> 50% Duroc 60.3 50.6 60.6 4.84
Hampshire 63.7 54.7 61.8 4.02
Pietrain 59.2 48.7 60.2 5.85
White 57.3 48.2 59.6 5.28
SED 3.41 2.32 2.27 0.352
P-value 0.020 0.001 0.30 < 0.001
Halothane status
    n (studies) 13 11 8 16
    n (comparisons) 41 48 27 78
    F statistic 3.01 6.95 0.53 6.35
    n.df: d.d.f 2,28.3 2,34.0 2,17.1 2,61.5
Homozygous dominant 58.3 53.6 52.2 4.50
Heterozygous 56.6 49.6 53.0 4.84
Homozygous recessive 52.6 44.3 50.0 5.50
SED 2.13 2.33 2.64 0.27
P-value 0.065 0.003 0.60 0.003
Hampshire gene
    n (studies) 3 3 4
    n (comparisons) 9 9 15
    F statistic 32.07 0.58 4.87
    n.df: d.d.f 1,5.0 1,5.0 1,10.0
rn- 60.4 50.1 5.72
RN+ 65.8 50.7 5.16
SED 0.96 0.86 0.252
P-value 0.002 0.48 0.052
Plane of nutrition
    n (studies) 14 13 11 11
    n (comparisons) 59 56 39 59
    F statistic 2.66 0.65 0.44 2.56
    n.df: d.d.f 3,43.3 3,40.8 3,25.1 3,46.8
Ad libitum Grower (G) Finisher (F) 54.1 45.2 47.4 5.17
Ad libitum G Restricted F 50.8 43.7 47.1 5.58
Restricted G Ad lib F 53.4 43.8 47.4 5.41
Restricted GF 51.2 44.0 46.8 5.59
SED 2.003 1.983 1.020 0.383
P-value 0.060 0.59 0.73 0.067
Housing type
    n (studies) 7 7 8 17
    n (comparisons) 21 21 20 57
    F statistic 0.38 0.24 1.43 0.23
    n.df: d.d.f 2,12.3 2,10.3 2,8.1 3,37.7
Barn/deep litter 69.2 55.7 61.6 4.55
Indoor/conventional 66.3 57.0 62.5 4.65
Outdoor 68.6 58.1 64.0 4.75
Outdoor access 4.77
SED 5.90 3.52 1.65 0.272
P-value 0.70 0.79 0.29 0.88
Ractopamine
    n (studies) 8 8 7 15
    n (comparisons) 35 35 33 50
    F statistic 1.61 0.29 0.35 5.64
    n.df: d.d.f 2,27.6 2,26.2 2,24.1 2,41.2
No ractopamine 58.3 51.5 52.4 4.13
Ractopamine – 5 mg/kg 55.7 49.9 51.6 4.65
Ractopamine – 7.5 to 10 mg/kg 54.6 50.7 51.4 4.54
SED 2.81 2.28 1.59 0.230
P-value 0.22 0.75 0.71 0.013
pST
    n (studies) 8 8 6 13
    n (comparisons) 74 74 50 74
    F statistic 13.79 6.22 3.57 6.11
    n.df: d.d.f 1,64.3 1,67.5 1,42.2 1,61.2
No pST 61.47 54.5 61.2 4.39
pST 55.82 50.8 58.8 4.81
SED 1.52 1.51 1.27 0.168
P-value < 0.001 0.015 0.066 0.016
Stunning method
    n (studies) 5
    n (comparisons) 51
    F statistic 0.66
    n.df: d.d.f 1,46.9
Carbon dioxide 6.59
Electrical 6.33
SED 0.314
P-value 0.42
Electrical stimulation
    n (studies) 5 5 7
    n (comparisons) 35 26 76
    F statistic 1.43 6.73 7.56
    n.df: d.d.f 3,29.8 3,18.9 3,66.2
No stimulation 50.3 50.6 5.91
Constant current – 2 to 4 min post-slaughter 56.8 54.3 5.29
High voltage – 20 min post-slaughter 52.7 45.9 4.90
Low voltage – 3 to 5 min post-slaughter 50.5 49.0 4.74
SED 5.14 3.18 0.437
P-value 0.25 0.014 < 0.001
Hanging method
    n (studies) 3 3 3
    n (comparisons) 48 48 44
    F statistic 8.30 1.95 10.71
    n.df: d.d.f 1,43.9 1,44.0 1,40.0
Achilles 50.4 45.6 4.93
Aitchbone/tenderstretch 55.5 47.2 4.26
SED 1.75 1.13 0.203
P-value 0.006 0.17 0.002
Chilling
    n (studies) 6 5 3 7
    n (comparisons) 23 14 10 43
    F statistic 4.27 0.23 0.14 8.07
    n.df: d.d.f 2,16.4 2,7.6 1,6.1 2,37.2
0 to 4°C for 18 to 24 h (conv) 54.4 49.0 57.6 6.13
Rapid chilling then conv 53.3 49.8 58.4 4.96
Warm chilling then conv 46.8 51.5 4.64
SED 3.38 3.64 2.03 0.581
P-value 0.032 0.80 0.725 0.001
Ageing period
    n (studies) 13 13 7 21
    n (comparisons) 109 108 80 234
    F statistic 6.56 1.04 7.11 43.13
    n.df: d.d.f 2,100.3 2,99.6 2,74.8 2,215.8
≤ 2 d 55.2 52.5 60.2 5.40
3 to 7 d 60.0 53.5 63.3 4.44
> 7 d 59.4 50.6 54.9 4.18
SED 2.41 1.98 2.35 0.147
P-value 0.002 0.36 0.001 < 0.001
Moisture infusion
    n (studies) 5 5 6 5
    n (comparisons) 34 34 38 34
    F statistic 27.59 20.28 4.47 7.10
    n.df: d.d.f 1,28.2 1,28.7 1,31.4 1,29.7
No moisture infusion 49.6 54.1 60.7 4.20
Moisture infusion 63.0 64.6 65.5 3.31
SED 2.53 2.31 2.30 0.331
P-value < 0.001 < 0.001 0.043 0.012
Endpoint temperature
    n (studies) 10 16 11 4
    n (comparisons) 49 112 88 18
    F statistic 4.14 31.23 4.37 1.40
    n.df: d.d.f 3,39.7 3,95.1 3,74.9 1,13.4
65 to 69°C 65.5 50.9 46.7
70 to 74°C 60.7 48.2 48.9 3.51
75 to 79°C 57.9 45.0 47.7 3.70
> 80°C 53.0 38.5 44.2
SED 3.48 1.63 1.80 0.152
P-value 0.012 < 0.001 0.007 0.26
Cut type
    n (studies) 4 8 8
    n (comparisons) 30 83 70
    F statistic 27.77 2.43 0.03
    n.df: d.d.f 1,24.4 1,80.3 1,62.7
Chop/steak 54.5 38.7 47.6
Roast 64.2 35.4 47.9
SED 1.84 2.14 1.80
P-value < 0.001 0.12 0.87