View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Diet composition (as-fed basis), Exp. 11

 
Standardized ileal digestible Lys, %
Ingredient, % 0.80 0.95 1.10 1.25
Corn 68.17 65.64 63.00 60.38
Soybean meal, 46.5% CP 25.58 27.89 30.21 32.49
Choice white grease 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00
Limestone 1.30 1.28 1.28 1.25
Monocalcium P, 21% P 1.80 1.78 1.75 1.75
Salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
L-Lys-HCl --- 0.12 0.24 0.36
DL-Met --- 0.01 0.07 0.14
L-Thr --- 0.06 0.13 0.20
L-Trp --- --- --- 0.02
L-Val --- 0.09 0.18 0.28
Trace mineral premix2 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
Sow vitamin premix3 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Vitamin premix4 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Total 100 100 100 100
Calculated analysis
Standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA, %
    Lys 0.80 0.95 1.10 1.25
    Ile:Lys 80 72 65 61
    Leu:Lys 173 151 135 123
    Met:Lys 32 29 31 34
    Met &     Cys:Lys 63 56 56 56
    Thr:Lys 69 67 67 67
    Trp:Lys 23 21 19 19
    Val:Lys 89 87 87 87
Total Lys, % 0.93 1.08 1.24 1.40
ME, kcal/kg 3,313 3,315 3,318 3,322
CP, % 17.8 18.9 20.1 21.3
Ca, % 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90
P, % 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75
Available P, % 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45
1Diets were fed from d113 of gestation to weaning.
2Provided per kilogram of premix: 26.5 g Mn from manganese oxide, 110 g Fe from iron sulfate, 110 g Zn from zinc sulfate, 11 g Cu from copper sulfate, 198 mg I from calcium iodate, and 198 mg Se from sodium selenite.
3Provided per kg premix: 4,409 IU vitamin A; 44 mg biotin; 992 mg vitamin B6; 331 mg folic acid; 110,229 mg choline; 9,921 mg L-carnitine.
4Provided per kg premix: 4,409,171 IU vitamin A; 551,150 IU vitamin D3; 17,637 IU vitamin E; 15 mg vitamin B12; 1,764 mg menadione; 3,307 mg riboflavin; 11,023 mg pantothenic acid, 19,841 mg niacin.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Chemical analysis of diets (as-fed basis), Exp.11

 
Standardized ileal digestible Lys, %
Item, % 0.80 0.95 1.10 1.25
DM 88.32 88.14 88.29 88.37
CP 17.99 18.68 20.01 21.40
Ca 1.03 1.05 1.08 1.09
P 0.77 0.75 0.79 0.79
Total AA, %
    Lys 1.01 1.12 1.26 1.43
    Ile 0.72 0.74 0.78 0.85
    Leu 1.55 1.48 1.64 1.74
    Met 0.30 0.31 0.37 0.44
    Met & Cys 0.63 0.64 0.71 0.81
    Thr 0.70 0.77 0.86 0.97
    Trp 0.22 0.22 0.24 0.27
    Val 0.85 0.92 1.06 1.21
    His 0.48 0.49 0.50 0.54
    Phe 0.84 0.93 0.97 1.03
1Diet samples were collected from each batch of feed at manufacturing from every 5fth bag. Crude protein and total AA analyses were conducted in duplicate on composite samples by Ajinomoto Heartland Inc. (Chicago, IL). Dry matter, Ca, and P analyses were conducted on composite samples by Ward Laboratories (Kearney, NE).



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Diet composition (as-fed basis), Exp. 21

 
Standardized ileal digestible Lys, %
Ingredient 0.75 0.90 1.05 1.20
Corn 73.40 68.36 63.28 58.51
Soybean meal, 46.5% CP 19.28 24.23 29.18 33.96
Corn oil 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
Limestone 1.41 1.39 1.36 1.34
Monocalcium P, 21% 1.33 1.30 1.27 1.24
Salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
L-Lys-HCL 0.15 0.19 0.23 0.28
L-Thr 0.04 0.07 0.11 0.15
L-Trp 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02
DL-Met --- 0.003 0.05 0.09
L-Val 0.06 0.12 0.18 0.24
Sal Curb2 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.33
Sow vitamin/mineral premix3 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20
Choline chloride 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.13
AxtraPhy 25004 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02
Dye5 0.16 0.16 0.16 ---
Total 100 100 100 100
Calculated analysis
Standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA, %
    Lys 0.75 0.90 1.05 1.20
    IIe:Lys 71 68 66 64
    Met: Lys 30 30 30 31
    Met & Cys: Lys 61 56 56 56
    Thr:Lys 67 67 67 67
    Trp:Lys 20 20 20 20
    Val:Lys 90 90 90 90
Total Lys, % 0.87 1.04 1.20 1.37
ME, kcal/kg 3,479 3,479 3,479 3,479
CP, % 15.5 17.5 19.6 21.6
Ca, % 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85
P, % 0.62 0.63 0.65 0.66
Available P, % 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45
1Diets were fed from d 114 of gestation to weaning.
2Kemin Industries (Des Moines, IA).
3Provided per kg of premix: 18 mg Cu; 0.8 mg I; 100 mg Fe; 40 mg Mn; 0.15 mg Se; 125 mg Zn; 11,000 IU vitamin A, 1,980 IU vitamin D; 99 IU vitamin E; 4 mg vitamin K; 0.04 mg vitamin B12; 44.2 mg niacin; 27.5 mg pantothenic acid; 8.6 mg riboflavin; 3.1 mg folic acid; 0.44 mg biotin; 5.1 mg vitamin B6; 2.2 mg thiamin; 0.44 mg chromium.
4Dupont (St. Louis, MO).
5Different colored dyes were added to distinguish among diets at the farm.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 4.

Chemical analysis of the diets (as-fed basis), Exp. 21

 
Standardized ileal digestible Lys, %
Item, % 0.75 0.90 1.05 1.20
DM 88.02 88.24 88.54 88.88
CP 14.78 16.87 18.25 20.08
Ca 0.97 0.94 1.04 0.99
P 0.62 0.66 0.62 0.63
Total AA, %
    Lys 0.89 1.03 1.19 1.31
    Ile 0.64 0.71 0.82 0.88
    Leu 1.36 1.48 1.61 1.69
    Met 0.22 0.24 0.32 0.38
    Met & Cys 0.46 0.50 0.62 0.68
    Thr 0.58 0.68 0.79 0.89
    Trp 0.12 0.15 0.16 0.18
    Val 0.82 0.94 1.12 1.25
    His 0.38 0.42 0.48 0.51
    Phe 0.75 0.84 0.94 1.00
    Free lys 0.12 0.14 0.18 0.21
1Diets were collected twice per week and pooled to make a composite sample. Six composite samples per dietary treatment were sent for analysis. Total AA analyses were conducted on composite samples by University of Missouri Experimental Station Chemical Laboratories (Columbia, MO). Dry matter, Crude protein, Ca and P analyses were conducted by Ward Laboratories (Kearney, NE).



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Effects of increasing standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine in lactation diets on sow performance, Exp. 11

 
Standardized ileal digestible Lys, %
Probability, P <
Item 0.80 0.95 1.10 1.25 SEM Linear Quadratic
BW, kg
    d 110 194.9 196.0 195.2 195.7 2.97 0.929 0.894
    d 0 184.3 184.0 183.7 185.2 2.50 0.835 0.667
    d 10 182.3 181.8 182.8 183.9 2.43 0.530 0.716
    Wean 179.2 178.2 180.6 181.8 2.49 0.335 0.738
BW loss, kg
    d 0 to 10 –2.03 –2.23 –1.43 –1.31 0.958 0.439 0.860
    d 10 to wean –3.08 –2.83 –2.28 –2.08 0.878 0.318 0.971
    d 0 to wean –5.12 –5.06 –3.76 –3.38 1.377 0.235 0.899
ADFI, kg
    d 0 to 10 4.66 4.44 4.50 4.64 0.127 0.952 0.130
    d 10 to wean 6.36 6.27 6.21 6.31 0.173 0.743 0.573
    d 0 to wean 4.99 4.74 4.90 4.97 0.136 0.821 0.226
Total Lys intake2, g/d 50.4 53.5 61.0 71.2 1.61 0.001 0.016
SID Lys intake3, g/d 39.9 45.0 53.9 62.1 1.35 0.001 0.243
BF loss, mm
    d 0 to 10 –0.99 –1.62 –0.95 –1.09 0.249 0.549 0.306
    d 10 to wean –1.48 –0.94 –1.23 –0.60 0.265 0.087 0.874
    d 0 to wean –2.51 –2.53 –2.18 –1.65 0.329 0.046 0.410
Lactation length, d 18.7 18.8 18.6 18.4 0.34 0.946 0.534
Wean-to-estrus interval, d 5.00 4.91 4.97 4.61 0.45 0.691 0.800
Females bred by 7 d after weaning, % 89.9 89.9 94.2 100.0 6.05 0.975 0.977
d 30 conception rate4, % 87.5 96.0 96.3 78.8 8.00 0.537 0.051
Farrowing rate5, % 79.2 88.0 96.0 74.8 8.03 0.789 0.290
1A total of 111 primiparous sows (DNA 241, DNA Genetics, Columbus, NE) across 4 farrowing groups were used in a 21-d trial with 27 to 29 sows per dietary treatment.
2Calculated using analyzed Lys values and ADFI.
3Calculated using formulated SID Lys values and ADFI.
4Number of sows confirmed pregnant on d 30 post mating divided by number of sows bred.
5Number of sows farrowed divided by number of sows bred by d 21 after weaning.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Effects of increasing lysine on sow performance in lactation of high-performing gilts and sows under commercial conditions, Exp. 21

 
Standardized ileal digestible Lys, %
Probability, P <
Item 0.75 0.90 1.05 1.20 SEM Linear Quadratic
Count, n 187 185 194 144
Parity 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.2 0.15 0.576 0.928
Sow BW, kg
    d 1122 209 209 209 208 1.8 0.478 0.932
    Post-farrow 2,3 195 194 194 193 1.8 0.487 0.958
    Wean2 173 176 180 177 2.0 0.017 0.046
Sow BW change, kg
    Post-farrow3 to wean2 –21.3 –18.2 –14.6 –16.9 1.45 0.001 0.018
    d 112 to wean2 –35.7 –31.9 –28.5 –31.6 1.50 0.003 0.004
Sow back fat4, mm
    d 1122 20.0 21.2 20.3 20.1 0.65 0.676 0.184
    Wean2 18.6 18.4 17.6 18.0 0.45 0.121 0.395
    Change (d 112 to wean)2 –1.4 –2.6 –2.8 –2.6 0.44 0.028 0.061
Loin eye depth, mm
    d 1122 52.9 52.4 52.3 52.6 0.77 0.722 0.575
    Wean2 50.2 51.2 52.0 52.6 0.64 0.002 0.784
Change (d 112 to wean)2 –1.9 –1.0 –0.1 0.5 0.61 0.002 0.784
Lactation length, d 21.3 21.4 21.4 21.4 0.11 0.485 0.435
Females bred by d 7 after weaning2, % 88.9 92.6 94.8 92.4 2.60 0.227 0.199
d 30 conception rate5, % 94.7 89.7 95.8 90.8 2.86 0.928 0.700
Farrowing rate6, % 92.3 85.6 93.8 88.6 3.39 0.957 0.951
ADFI from feed delivery records7, kg 6.45 6.36 6.68 5.90
SID Lys intake8, g/d 48.4 57.2 70.2 70.6
1A total of 710 sows (DNA 241, DNA Genetics, Columbus, NE) and litters were used in a lactation study from d 112 of gestation until weaning.
2Significant differences of treatment within parity category observed.
3Post-farrow weight was calculated using d 112 BW and subtracting weight of conceptus (calculated using modified equation by Thomas, 2017).
4A subsample of sows (n = 369) were ultrasounded on d 112 for backfat and loin eye depth and subsequently used in the backfat and loin eye depth change calculation. All 710 sows were measured at weaning for backfat and loin eye depth.
5Number of sows confirmed pregnant on d 30 post mating divided by number of sows bred.
6Number of sows farrowed divided by number of sows bred by d 21 after weaning.
7Calculated using total feed deliveries by treatment and dividing by total number of sows on feedline.
8Calculated using ADFI multiplied by SID Lys in the experimental diet.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 7.

Effects of increasing standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine in lactation diets on litter and subsequent performance, Exp. 11

 
SID Lysine, %
Probability, P <
Item 0.80 0.95 1.10 1.25 SEM Linear Quadratic
Litter size, n
    d 2 13.1 13.3 13.0 12.3 0.70 0.983 0.953
    d 10 13.1 13.3 13.0 12.3 0.70 0.983 0.953
    Wean 12.9 13.1 12.9 12.3 0.70 0.916 0.988
Litter weight, kg
    d 2 19.2 19.4 18.5 18.7 0.49 0.263 0.965
    d 10 42.0 41.6 41.4 41.5 0.53 0.451 0.528
    Wean 69.5 69.0 67.4 67.7 1.31 0.120 0.728
Litter gain, kg
    d 2 to 10 22.8 22.5 21.9 22.1 0.57 0.267 0.617
    d 10 to wean 27.6 27.7 25.7 26.1 1.22 0.194 0.899
    d 2 to wean 50.2 49.9 48.0 48.4 1.36 0.209 0.766
Litter ADG d 2 to wean, g 2,984 2,959 2,896 2,938 57.3 0.374 0.545
Subsequent performance2
    Total piglets born per sow farrowed, n 14.3 16.4 15.2 15.7 0.95 0.603 0.394
    Born alive, % 94.2 89.8 91.0 93.7 2.05 0.955 0.054
    Stillborn, % 5.0 7.2 7.0 5.0 1.73 0.998 0.193
    Mummy, % 0.6 3.0 1.5 1.0 1.03 0.960 0.090
1A total of 111 primiparous sows (DNA 241, DNA Genetics, Columbus, NE) across 4 farrowing groups were used in a 21-d trial with 27 to 29 sows per dietary treatment.
2Number of sows included for subsequent performance were 19, 22, 26, and 20 for dietary treatments of 0.80, 0.95, 1.10, and 1.25% SID Lys, respectively.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 8.

Effects of increasing lysine in lactation on litter performance of high-performing gilts and sows under commercial conditions, Exp. 21

 
Standardized ileal digestible Lys, %
Probability, P <
Item 0.75 0.90 1.05 1.20 SEM Linear Quadratic
Total born 15.9 15.4 15.4 16.4 0.38 0.497 0.255
Litter size2, n
d 2 13.6 13.7 13.7 13.7 0.07 0.950 0.965
d 17 12.6 12.7 12.7 12.7 0.11 0.896 0.945
Litter weight, kg
d 2 21.5 21.8 22.2 21.2 0.34 0.835 0.016
d 17 61.3 61.5 64.1 60.2 0.64 0.807 0.001
Litter gain d 2 to 17, kg 39.7 39.8 42.5 38.6 0.64 0.807 0.001
Litter ADG d 2 to 17, g 2,695 2,704 2,887 2,619 43.4 0.807 0.001
Subsequent performance3
Total born per sow farrowed, n 15.9 16.0 16.3 15.1 0.41 0.482 0.310
Born alive, % 92.0 93.0 92.0 92.4 0.78 0.863 0.666
Stillborns, % 4.3 3.3 4.2 5.1 0.63 0.150 0.065
Mummies, % 3.5 3.6 3.7 2.4 0.51 0.158 0.110
1A total of 710 sows (DNA 241, DNA Genetics, Columbus, NE) and litters were used in a lactation study from d 112 of gestation until weaning.
2Litters were cross-fostered to equalize litter size up to 48-h post-farrowing.
3Number of sows included in subsequent performance are 161, 149, 140, 108 for dietary treatments of 0.75, 0.90, 1.05 and 1.20% SID Lys, respectively.