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Chemical analysis of ingredients

 
Item, % Corn1,2 Soybean meal1,2 Dried whey1,2 Field peas, Exp. 13 Field peas, Exp. 21,3 Spray dried blood cells4
DM 88.81 89.09 90.04 92.19 86.60 93.30
CP 9.013 47.00 11.84 22.11 22.50 92.60
Total AA
    Lys 0.29 2.88 0.79 1.54 1.59 8.88
    Ile 0.31 2.09 0.65 0.89 0.91 0.28
    Leu 1.10 3.51 1.07 1.52 1.59 12.62
    Met 0.18 0.66 0.16 0.19 0.21 1.23
    Thr 0.30 1.80 0.68 0.79 0.83 4.29
    Trp 0.07 0.65 0.22 0.17 0.21 1.58
    Val 0.40 2.12 0.59 0.99 0.99 8.35
    His 0.24 1.17 0.18 0.50 0.54 6.17
    Phe 0.43 2.35 0.37 1.03 1.07 7.25
Standardized ileal digestible AA, % (Calculated)
    Lys 0.21 2.56 0.77 1.40 1.44 8.67
    Ile 0.25 1.86 0.62 0.78 0.79 0.25
    Leu 0.95 3.09 1.05 1.35 1.41 12.3
    Met 0.15 0.59 0.16 0.17 0.19 1.26
    Thr 0.23 1.53 0.61 0.69 0.72 4.13
    Trp 0.06 0.59 0.21 0.15 0.18 1.48
    Val 0.32 1.84 0.56 0.86 0.86 8.14
    His 0.20 1.05 0.17 0.46 0.50 6.07
    Phe 0.36 2.07 0.34 0.92 0.96 7.08
1Analyzed at Ajinomoto Heartland, Inc. (Chicago, IL) for amino acid content.
2SID content calculated using SID coefficients from the NRC (NRC. 2012).
3Exp. 1 peas used total AA content and SID coefficients from Mathai (2015). Exp. 2 peas use SID coefficients from Mathai (2015).
4Spray dried blood cells use total values and coefficients from Almeida et al. (2013).



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Diet composition (Exp. 1, as-fed basis)1

 
Formulated SID2 Ile:Lys ratio, %
Item 40 63 Common phase
Ingredient, %
    Corn 57.68 57.59 63.77
    Soybean meal, 48% CP 13.25 13.26 32.86
    Dried whey 10.00 10.00
    Field peas 10.00 10.00
    Spray dried blood cells 1.50 1.50
    Limestone 1.00 1.00 0.98
Monocalcium     phosphate, 22% P 1.80 1.80 1.10
    Salt 0.30 0.30 0.35
    L-Lys-HCl 0.63 0.63 0.30
    DL-Met 0.33 0.33 0.12
    L-Thr 0.32 0.32 0.12
    L-Trp 0.10 0.10
    L-Val 0.24 0.24
    L-Ile 0.29
    Glutamic acid 1.10 1.00
    Glycine 1.10 1.00
    Trace mineral premix3 0.15 0.15 0.15
    Vitamin premix4 0.25 0.25 0.25
    Zinc oxide 0.25 0.25
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00
Calculated analysis
SID AA, %
    Lys 1.28 1.28 1.22
    Ile:Lys 40 63 63
    Leu:Lys 107 107 129
    Met:Lys 42 42 33
    Met and Cys:Lys 59 59 57
    Thr:Lys 65 65 63
    Trp:Lys 20.3 20.3 18.7
    Val:Lys 71 71 69
    Total Lys, % 1.38 1.38 1.37
    ME, kcal/kg 3,228 3,236 3,272
    NE, kcal/kg 2,427 2,436 2,407
    SID Lys:ME, g/Mcal 3.96 3.95 3.73
    SID Lys:NE, g/Mcal 5.36 5.34 5.16
    CP, % 18.2 18.2 21.4
    Ca, % 0.82 0.82 0.70
    P, % 0.73 0.73 0.64
    Available P, % 0.51 0.51 0.41
1Dietary treatments 40% and 63% SID Ile:Lys were manufactured and blended at the feed mill to create the intermediate levels of 44, 48, 52, 54, and 58% SID Ile:Lys.
2Standardized ileal digestible.
3Provided per kilogram of premix: 22 g Mn from manganese oxide; 73 g Fe from iron sulfate; 73 g Zn from zinc sulphate; 11 g Cu from copper sulfate; 198 mg I from calcium iodate; and 198 mg Se from sodium selenite.
4Provided per kilogram of premix: 3,527,360 IU vitamin A; 881,840 IU vitamin D3; 17,637 IU vitamin E; 3,307 mg riboflavin; 1,764 mg menadione; 11,023 mg pantothenic acid; 33,069 mg niacin; and 15.4 mg vitamin B12.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Diet composition (Exp. 2, as-fed basis)1

 
Formulated SID2 Ile:Lys ratio, %
Item 50 85 Common phase
Ingredient, %
    Corn 59.04 58.95 63.77
    Soybean meal, 48% CP 11.95 11.96 32.86
    Dried whey 10.00 10.00
    Field peas 10.00 10.00
    Spray dried blood cells 1.50 1.50
    Limestone 1.00 1.00 0.98
    Monocalcium phosphate, 22% P 1.80 1.80 1.10
    Salt 0.30 0.30 0.35
    L-Lys-HCl 0.60 0.60 0.30
    DL-Met 0.32 0.32 0.12
    L-Thr 0.31 0.31 0.12
    L-Trp 0.10 0.10
    L-Val 0.23 0.23
    L-Ile 0.28
    Glutamic acid 1.10 1.00
    Glycine 1.10 1.00
    Trace mineral premix3 0.15 0.15 0.15
    Vitamin premix4 0.25 0.25 0.25
    Zinc oxide 0.25 0.25
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00
Calculated analysis
SID AA, %
    Lys 1.24 1.24 1.22
    Ile:Lys 40 63 63
    Leu:Lys 109 109 129
    Met:Lys 42 42 33
    Met and Cys:Lys 60 60 57
    Thr:Lys 66 66 63
    Trp:Lys 21 21 18.7
    Val:Lys 71 71 69
    Total Lys, % 1.34 1.34 1.37
    ME, kcal/kg 3,228 3,236 3,272
    NE, kcal/kg 2,434 2,443 2,407
    SID Lys:ME, g/Mcal 3.83 3.82 3.73
    SID Lys:NE, g/Mcal 5.15 5.14 5.16
    CP, % 18.6 18.6 21.4
    Ca, % 0.81 0.81 0.70
    P, % 0.73 0.73 0.64
    Available P, % 0.51 0.51 0.41
1Dietary treatments 40% and 63% SID Ile:Lys were manufactured and blended at the feed mill to create the intermediate levels of 44, 48, 52, 54, and 58% SID Ile:Lys.
2Standardized ileal digestible
3Provided per kilogram of premix: 22 g Mn from manganese oxide; 73 g Fe from iron sulfate; 73 g Zn from zinc sulphate; 11 g Cu from copper sulfate; 198 mg I from calcium iodate; and 198 mg Se from sodium selenite.
4Provided per kilogram of premix: 3,527,360 IU vitamin A; 881,840 IU vitamin D3; 17,637 IU vitamin E; 3,307 mg riboflavin; 1,764 mg menadione; 11,023 mg pantothenic acid; 33,069 mg niacin; and 15.4 mg vitamin B12.



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Chemical analysis of diets (Exp. 1, as-fed basis)1

 
Formulated standardized ileal digestible (SID) Ile:Lys ratio, %2
Item 40 44 48 52 54 58 63
Proximate analysis, %3
    DM 88.11 88.82 89.21 88.94 87.85 88.86 89.23
    CP 18.0 18.7 18.6 18.7 18.8 18.8 19.0
    Crude fiber 2.2 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.0 2.1
    Ether extract 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.3 2.3 2.1
    Ash 4.64 5.52 4.79 5.07 5.3 5.06 5.29
AA analysis, %4
    Lys 1.28 1.34 1.40 1.42 1.39 1.45 1.41
    Ile 0.59 0.67 0.74 0.74 0.79 0.86 0.93
    Leu 1.46 1.50 1.52 1.52 1.53 1.51 1.56
    Met 0.46 0.50 0.50 0.53 0.49 0.56 0.55
    Met + Cys 0.75 0.79 0.79 0.74 0.76 0.84 0.83
    Thr 0.93 0.92 0.89 0.97 0.87 0.91 0.95
    Trp 0.24 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.26 0.28 0.29
    Val 0.92 0.98 0.97 1.04 1.01 1.04 1.07
    His 0.43 0.45 0.45 0.46 0.45 0.45 0.46
    Phe 0.79 0.80 0.81 0.81 0.79 0.79 0.81
1Dietary treatment samples were collected at the feed mill after manufacturing.
2Low (40% SID Ile:Lys) and high (63% SID Ile:Lys) diets were blended at the feed mill to create the intermediate dietary treatments.
3Composite samples were submitted to Ward Laboratories (Kearney, NE) for proximate analysis.
4Composite samples were submitted to Ajinomoto Heartland Inc. (Chicago, IL) for AA analysis.



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Chemical analysis of diets (Exp. 2, as-fed basis)1

 
Formulated standardized ileal digestible (SID) Ile:Lys ratio, %2
Item 40 44 48 52 54 58 63
Item, %3
    DM 90.29 90.41 90.07 90.37 90.36 90.30 89.97
    CP 18.1 18.4 18.6 18.2 18.3 18.7 18.7
    Crude fiber 1.9 1.8 2.4 1.7 1.9 1.9 2.3
    Ether extract 2.6 2.7 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.6
    Ash 5.25 5.27 5.12 5.24 5.12 5.40 5.18
AA analysis, %4
    Lys 1.33 1.34 1.34 1.36 1.36 1.35 1.33
    Ile 0.60 0.60 0.65 0.69 0.75 0.75 0.82
    Leu 1.47 1.43 1.45 1.47 1.48 1.47 1.48
    Met 0.50 0.54 0.51 0.50 0.52 0.50 0.54
    Met + Cys 0.75 0.77 0.73 0.75 0.76 0.77 0.82
    Thr 0.86 0.84 0.92 0.87 0.90 0.91 0.98
    Trp 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.25 0.27 0.26 0.27
    Val 0.97 0.96 0.96 0.95 0.99 1.02 0.99
    His 0.46 0.43 0.45 0.43 0.45 0.44 0.45
    Phe 0.79 0.77 0.78 0.78 0.78 0.78 0.78
1Dietary treatment samples were collected at the feed mill after manufacturing.
2Low (40% SID Ile:Lys) and high (63% SID Ile:Lys) diets were blended at the feed mill to create the intermediate dietary treatments.
3Composite samples were submitted to Ward Laboratories (Kearney, NE) for analysis.
4Composite samples were submitted to Ajinomoto Heartland Inc. (Chicago, IL) for AA analysis.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 6.

Effects of increasing standardized ileal digestible (SID) Ile:Lys ratio on nursery pig growth performance, Exp. 11

 
Formulated SID Ile:Lys ratio, %2
Probability, P <
Item 40 44 48 52 54 58 63 SEM Linear Quadratic
Treatment period (d 0 to 12)
    ADG, g 330 344 342 388 344 358 375 –3 0.005 0.418
    ADFI, g 495 524 546 601 522 574 555 16.6 0.002 0.017
    G:F 0.669 0.657 0.628 0.648 0.658 0.625 0.676 –4 0.904 0.043
Post-treatment period (d 12 to 26)
    ADG, g 554 555 557 553 573 576 545 14.5 0.779 0.325
    ADFI, g 851 835 851 859 866 891 854 19.4 0.190 0.588
    G:F 0.652 0.665 0.655 0.643 0.662 0.647 0.640 0.0102 0.166 0.429
Overall (d 0 to 26)
    ADG, g 450 458 458 477 467 475 467 11.0 0.082 0.270
    ADFI, g 687 692 710 740 707 744 716 15.2 0.011 0.106
    G:F 0.657 0.662 0.645 0.645 0.660 0.639 0.652 0.0092 0.337 0.504
BW, kg
    d 0 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 0.08 0.995 0.993
    d 12 10.7 10.9 10.8 11.4 10.9 11.0 11.2 0.19 0.006 0.536
    d 26 18.5 18.6 18.7 19.1 18.9 19.1 18.9 0.33 0.105 0.304
1A total of 280 nursery pigs (PIC 327 × 1,050, initially 6.7 ± 0.08 kg BW) were used in a 26-d growth trial with 8 pens per dietary treatment and 5 pigs per pen. Pigs were weaned at approximately 21 d, fed a common starter diet for 6 d post-weaning, then placed on experimental diets. Experimental diets were fed from d 0 to 12 and a common diet was fed from d 12 to 26.
2Low (40% SID Ile:Lys) and high (63% SID Ile:Lys) complete dietary treatments were blended upon manufacturing at the feed mill to create the 44, 48, 52, 54, and 58% SID Ile:Lys intermediate dietary treatments.
3Heteroskedastic modeling resulted in SEM = 8.8 for 40, 48, 52, and 54% dietary treatments and 14.0 for 44, 58, and 63% SID Ile:Lys ratio dietary treatments.
4Heteroskedastic modeling resulted in SEM = 0.0160 for 40, 44, 48, 52, 58, and 63% dietary treatments and 0.0096 for 54% SID Ile:Lys ratio dietary treatment.



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Effects of increasing standardized ileal digestible (SID) Ile:Lys ratio on nursery pig growth performance, Exp. 21

 
Formulated SID Ile:Lys ratio, %2
Probability, P <
Item 40 44 48 52 54 58 63 SEM Linear Quadratic
Treatment period (d 0 to 18)
    ADG, g 229 247 266 306 263 286 282 –3 0.001 0.016
    ADFI, g 331 370 393 453 395 421 410 –4 0.001 0.003
    G:F 0.690 0.671 0.679 0.677 0.666 0.682 0.687 0.0146 0.935 0.228
Post-treatment period (d 18 to 32)
    ADG, g 562 590 583 587 577 594 585 15.8 0.246 0.378
    ADFI, g 852 906 896 940 902 928 925 25.8 0.010 0.154
G:F 0.661 0.653 0.652 0.625 0.642 0.640 0.633 0.0093 0.009 0.298
Overall (d 0 to 32)
    ADG, g 375 397 405 429 399 421 415 11.5 0.001 0.034
    ADFI, g 559 605 613 666 615 643 635 18.6 0.001 0.010
    G:F 0.670 0.658 0.661 0.645 0.651 0.655 0.653 0.0090 0.107 0.209
BW, kg
    d 0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 0.27 0.824 0.920
    d 18 10.1 10.5 10.8 11.5 10.8 11.2 11.1 0.41 0.001 0.010
    d 32 18.0 18.7 19.0 19.7 18.9 19.5 19.3 0.59 0.001 0.032
1A total of 280 nursery pigs (DNA Genetics Line 600 × Line 241, initially 6.0 ± 0.27 kg BW) were used in a 32-d growth trial with 8 pens per treatment and 5 pigs per pen. Pigs were weaned at approximately 20 d of age. After a common diet period, pens were placed on experimental diets. Experimental diets were fed from d 0 to 18 and a common diet was fed from d 18 to 32.
2Low (40% SID Ile:Lys) and high (63% SID Ile:Lys) complete diets were blended upon manufacturing at the feed mill to create the 44, 48, 52, 54, and 58% SID Ile:Lys dietary treatments.
3Heteroskedastic modeling resulted in SEM = 11.5 for 40, 44, 52, 54, 58, and 63% dietary treatments and 3.5 for 48% SID Ile:Lys ratio treatment.
4Heteroskedastic modeling resulted in SEM = 17.3 for 40, 44, 52, 54, 58, and 63% dietary treatments and 7.9 for 48% SID Ile:Lys ratio dietary treatment.