View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 1.

Ingredient composition of heifer diets (% DM basis) for Exp. 1

 
Inclusion, % DM
Item Year 1 Year 2
Ingredient, %
    Corn silage 72 60
    MDGS1 13 15
    Treated corn stalks2 10
    Grass hay 20
    Supplement3,4 5 5
Analyzed nutrient content
    CP, % 10.1 9.9
    NDF, % 51.1 50.7
    ADF, % 28.9 27.7
    Crude fat, % 2.9 3.5
    S, % 0.18 0.20
    Cu, mg/kg 4.8 13.6
    Mn, mg/kg 29.3 29.1
    Zn, mg/kg 21.9 36.6
1Experiment 1 determined the effects of a TMI on spring born Angus × Simmental heifer performance and reproduction.
2Modified distillers grains with solubles.
3Corn stalks were treated with Silage SAVOR Plus (Kemin Industries, Inc., Des Moines, IA) at 0.5 kg Mg–1 applied at bagging.
4Supplement contained 87.7% ground corn, 8.9% limestone, 1.8% trace mineral salt [8.5% Ca as calcium carbonate, 5% Mg as magnesium oxide and magnesium sulfate, 7.6% K as potassium chloride, 6.7% Cl as potassium chloride, 10% S as S8, prilled, 0.5% Cu as copper sulfate and Availa-4 (Zinpro Performance Minerals; Zinpro Corp, Eden Prairie, MN), 2% Fe as iron sulfate, 3% Mn as manganese sulfate and Availa-4, 3% Zn as zinc sulfate and Availa-4, 278 mg/kg Co as Availa-4, 250 mg/kg I as calcium iodate, 150 mg/kg Se as sodium selenite, 2,205 KIU/kg VitA as retinyl acetate, 662.5 KIU/kg VitD as cholecalciferol, 22,047.5 IU/kg VitE as DL-α-tocopheryl acetate, and less than 1% crude protein, fat, crude fiber, salt], 0.1% Rumensin 90 (198 g monensin/kg, Rumensin 90; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN), and 1.5% fat.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 2.

Ingredient composition of heifer diets (% DM basis) for Exp. 21

 
Inclusion, % DM
Item Year 1 Year 2
Ingredient, %
    Corn silage 24.7 59.0
    MDGS2 14.14 20.0
    Grass hay 61.16 16.0
    Supplement3,4 5.0
Analyzed nutrient content
    CP, % 12.1 10.5
    NDF, % 53.9 41.1
    ADF, % 33.2 21.0
    Crude fat, % 2.3 4.2
    S, % 0.27 0.22
    Cu, mg/kg 6.4 7.0
    Mn, mg/kg 40.2 67.2
    Zn, mg/kg 30.0 37.8
1Experiment 2 determined the effects of a TMI on spring born Angus × Simmental heifer performance and reproduction.
2Modified distillers grains with solubles.
3In year 1 supplement was top dressed at a rate of 0.11 kg/heifer per d (23.4% Ca as calcium carbonate, 15.7% salt, 1.0% Mg as magnesium oxide, 3,500 mg/kg of Zn as zinc sulfate, 3,350 mg/kg of Cu as copper sulfate, 26.4 mg/kg of Se as sodium selenite, 181,437 IU/kg of vitamin A, and 181 IU/kg of vitamin E).
4Supplement contained 87.7% ground corn, 8.9% limestone, 1.8% trace mineral salt [8.5% Ca as calcium carbonate, 5% Mg as magnesium oxide and magnesium sulfate, 7.6% K as potassium chloride, 6.7% Cl as potassium chloride, 10% S as S8, prilled, 0.5% Cu as copper sulfate and Availa-4 (Zinpro Performance Minerals; Zinpro Corp, Eden Prairie, MN), 2% Fe as iron sulfate, 3% Mn as manganese sulfate and Availa-4, 3% Zn as zinc sulfate and Availa-4, 278 mg/kg Co as Availa-4, 250 mg/kg I as calcium iodate, 150 mg/kg Se as sodium selenite, 2,205 KIU/kg VitA as retinyl acetate, 662.5 KIU/kg VitD as cholecalciferol, 22,047.5 IU/kg VitE as DL-α-tocopheryl acetate, and less than 1% crude protein, fat, crude fiber, salt], 0.1% Rumensin 90 (198 g monensin/kg, Rumensin 90; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN), and 1.5% fat.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 3.

Influence of an injectable trace mineral on heifer BW and BCS over 2 consecutive years in Exp. 1

 
Treatment1
Item CON1 MM1 SEM P-value
n, heifer 47 46
BW, kg
    Initial 429 426 4.6 0.72
    Breeding 425 424 6.4 0.92
    AI pregnancy confirmation 433 418 6.5 0.37
    Final pregnancy confirmation 437 436 16.2 0.78
BCS
    Initial 5.4 5.4 0.07 0.52
    Breeding 5.7 5.5 0.17 0.03
    AI pregnancy confirmation 5.5 5.5 0.22 0.86
    Final pregnancy confirmation 5.5 5.6 0.22 0.64
1Control (CON1) cattle received a sterilized saline solution at 1 mL/68 kg BW, and Multimin 90 (MM1) cattle received injectable trace mineral at 1 mL/68 kg BW.



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Influence of an injectable trace mineral on heifer BW, BCS, and tail paint score over 2 consecutive years in Exp. 2

 
Treatment1
Item CON2 MM2 SEM P-value
n, heifer 60 60
BW, kg
    Initial 427 426 15.1 0.97
    Breeding 413 413 10.3 0.96
    AI pregnancy confirmation 432 427 9.3 0.44
    Final pregnancy confirmation 434 435 27.5 0.81
BCS
    Initial 5.5 5.5 0.09 0.58
    Breeding 5.8 5.8 0.09 0.78
    AI pregnancy confirmation 5.6 5.6 0.14 0.80
    Final pregnancy confirmation 5.5 5.5 0.17 0.58
Tail paint score2,3, %
    1 25 23 0.90
    2 75 74 0.95
    3
1Control (CON2) cattle received a sterilized saline solution at 1 mL/68 kg BW, and Multimin 90 (MM2) cattle received injectable trace mineral at 1 mL/68 kg BW.
2Tail paint scores were visually assessed at the time of breeding (1 = completely gone, 2 = partially gone, 3 = untouched).
3Tail paint scores were not collected in year 1.



View Full Table | Close Full ViewTable 5.

Influence of an injectable trace mineral on heifer BW, BCS, and heat patch scores in Exp. 3

 
Treatment1
Item CON3 MM3 SEM P-value
n, heifer 99 100
BW, kg
    Initial 344 344 2.8 0.93
    Breeding 347 348 2.9 0.79
    AI pregnancy confirmation 346 348 3.1 0.76
    Final pregnancy confirmation 374 370 3.3 0.39
BCS
    Initial 5.4 5.4 0.05 0.95
    Breeding 5.6 5.7 0.05 0.10
    AI pregnancy confirmation 5.0 5.1 0.05 0.45
    Final pregnancy confirmation 4.9 4.9 0.05 1.00
Heat Patch Score2, %
    1 58 59 0.89
    2 17 20 0.59
    3 25 21 0.50
1Control (CON3) cattle received a sterilized saline solution at 1 mL/68 kg BW, and Multimin 90 (MM3) cattle received injectable trace mineral at 1 mL/68 kg BW.
2 Heat patches were visually scored at time of breeding from 0– 3 (0 = missing, 1 = fully activated, 2 = partially activated, 3 = not activated). No heifers were missing heat patches at the time of breeding.