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Diet composition, as fed basis

 
Ingredients, % Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5
Corn 53.63 56.72 60.90 64.58 71.03
Soybean meal, 48% CP 23.00 20.00 16.00 12.50 6.25
Corn DDGS 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00
Soybean oil 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Limestone 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.83
L-Lysine·HCl 0.63 0.60 0.55 0.50 0.43
Sodium chloride 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35
Commercial VTM1 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.08 0.08
Heat Stable Optiphos 2000 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01
L-Threonine 0.23 0.20 0.14 0.10 0.04
Methionine HMTBa 0.20 0.16 0.09 0.05
Titanium dioxide 0.40 0.40
Formulated composition
    CP, % 20.1 19.1 17.7 16.5 14.3
    ME, Mcal/kg 3.39 3.39 3.39 3.40 3.40
    Lys, SID % 1.30 1.20 1.05 0.95 0.75
    Met+Cys, SID % 0.78 0.72 0.64 0.58 0.45
    SID Lys/ME, g/Mcal 3.83 3.53 3.10 2.79 2.21
    STTD Phosphorus, % 0.31 0.30 0.24 0.23 0.22
Chemical composition
    Crude Protein, % 20.9 19.9
    Gross energy, Mcal/kg 4.16 4.09
1VTM = Vitamin-trace mineral premix, which supplied per kilogram of diet: vitamin A, 8,820 IU; vitamin D3, 1,653 IU; vitamin E, 33.1 IU; vitamin K, 4.4 mg; riboflavin, 6.6 mg; niacin, 38.9 mg; pantothenic acid, 22.1 mg; vitamin B12, 0.04 mg; I, 1.1 mg as potassium iodide; Se, 0.30 mg sodium selenite; Zn, 60.6 mg as zinc oxide; Fe, 36.4 mg as ferrous sulfate; Mn, 12.1 mg as manganous oxide; and Cu, 3.6 mg as copper sulfate.



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PRRS viremia and antibody titer serology

 
Parameter CONT1 CHAL1
PRRS viremia2
    dpi 0 0.0 (neg.) 0.0 (neg.)
    dpi 7 0.0 (neg.) 4.6 (pos.)
    dpi 21 0.0 (neg.) 5.9 (pos.)
    dpi 35 0.0 (neg.) 0.0 (neg.)
    dpi 70 0.0 (neg.) 0.0 (neg.)
PRRS antibody titer3
    dpi 0 0.00 (neg.) 0.00 (neg.)
    dpi 7 0.00 (neg.) 0.20 (pos.)
    dpi 21 0.02 (neg.) 0.20 (pos.)
    dpi 35 0.01 (neg.) 1.20 (pos.)
    dpi 70 0.01 (neg.) 0.87 (pos.)
1n = 5 pens/treatment. neg. = Negative; pos. = Positive.
2QPCR viremia (Log+1 genomic copies/mL).
3PRRSX3 EIA titer.



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The impact of PRRS on growth performance of grow-finish pigs

 
Parameter CONT1 CHAL1 SEM P-value
0–42 dpi
    ADG, kg 0.93 0.75 0.028 < 0.001
    ADFI, kg 1.87 1.68 0.038 0.002
    G:F 0.50 0.44 0.017 0.010
43–70 dpi
    ADG, kg 0.81 0.73 0.065 0.260
    ADFI, kg 2.31 2.41 0.087 0.301
    G:F 0.35 0.30 0.052 0.077
Overall, 0 dpi to market BW 128 kg (∼114 dpi)
    ADG, kg 0.90 0.80 0.021 0.002
    ADFI, kg 2.06 1.93 0.049 0.032
    G:F 0.44 0.41 0.017 0.227
1n = 5 pens/treatment.



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PRRS reduces apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and energy

 
Parameter CONT1 CHAL1 SEM P-value
19–22 dpi ATTD coefficients, %
    Dry matter 83.9 81.3 0.54 < 0.001
    Nitrogen 81.8 77.3 0.84 < 0.001
    Gross Energy 81.0 77.8 0.64 < 0.001
65–70 dpi ATTD coefficients, %
    Dry matter 81.5 79.8 0.62 0.008
    Nitrogen 80.1 78.0 0.82 0.018
    Gross Energy 78.1 76.3 0.76 0.020
1n = 5 pens/treatment.



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The impact of PRRS on whole body tissue accretion and carcass

 
Parameter1 CONT CHAL SEM P-value
0–42 dpi1
    Lean, g/d 635 491 14.5 < 0.001
    Protein, g/d 123 94 2.61 < 0.010
    Fat, g/d 155 108 8.41 < 0.001
    BMC, g/d 24.6 21.5 1.07 0.006
    Whole body gain, kg/d 0.83 0.63 0.02 < 0.001
43–80 dpi1
    Lean, g/d 683 664 30.1 0.54
    Protein, g/d 141 135 6.36 0.38
    Fat, g/d 326 280 16.6 0.008
BMC, g/d 31.9 31.5 1.47 0.78
    Whole body gain, kg/d 0.94 0.89 0.02 0.17
Overall (0–80 dpi)1
    Lean, g/d 657 568 13.9 < 0.001
    Protein, g/d 131 112 2.89 < 0.001
    Fat, g/d 230 184 9.22 < 0.001
    BMC, g/d 27.8 26.0 0.94 0.063
    Whole body gain, kg/d 0.92 0.78 0.019 < 0.001
Carcass data2
    Live weight, kg 123.0 126.4 1.74 0.21
    HCW, kg 94.5 95.3 1.67 0.64
    Yield, % 76.7 75.3 0.44 0.063
    Lean. %3 55.4 56.3 0.25 0.034
    Back fat depth, cm 1.85 1.50 0.065 0.005
    Loin depth, cm 7.04 7.05 0.079 0.96
1n = 30 gilts/treatment.
2Carcass data means of 5 pens/treatment.
3Calculated as 58.86 − [fat depth (mm) × 0.61] + [loin depth (mm) × 0.12].



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Blood metabolite and inflammatory markers at dpi 21 post PRRS virus inoculation

 
Parameter1 CONT CHAL SEM P-value
Glucose, mg/dL 115 113 5.1 0.618
Insulin, ng/L 134 64 23.9 0.005
Glucose:Insulin 1.3 2.8 0.32 0.016
Interferon α, pg/mL 1.1 2.8 0.76 0.032
Interleukin 6, pg/mL 340 144 152.7 0.216
Interleukin 8, pg/mL 169 271 66.0 0.140
Interleukin 12p40, pg/mL 898 1178 256.2 0.289
Tumor necrosis factor ɑ, pg/mL 0 63 35.6 0.094
1n = 5 pens/treatment.



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Residual correlations between Period 1 (0–42 dpi) tissue accretion and 21 dpi serology1

 
Parameter INFɑ IL6 IL8 TNFɑ IL12p40 Insulin Glucose
Protein, g/d -0.54
0.107
0.59
0.072
-0.28
0.426
-0.03
0.943
-0.09
0.804
-0.02
0.965
-0.35
0.327
Lean, g/d -0.52
0.126
0.62
0.057
-0.31
0.384
-0.06
0.870
-0.08
0.825
0.0008
0.998
-0.35
0.324
Fat, g/d -0.50
0.142
0.37
0.293
0.16
0.669
0.33
0.390
0.09
0.808
-0.06
0.877
-0.04
0.902
BMC, g/d -0.54
0.362
0.30
0.398
-0.20
0.571
-0.04
0.910
0.20
0.573
0.02
0.953
-0.14
0.672
Whole body, g/d -0.57
0.086
0.58
0.078
-0.18
0.614
0.07
0.849
-0.02
0.956
-0.01
0.976
-0.27
0.456



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Economic assessment of a grow-finish pigs challenged with PRRS virus1

 
Assumptions CONT CHAL Difference
1) Assumption if taken to same live weight
    ADFI, kg 2.05 1.93
    Feed days 105 119 +14 d
    Total feed, kg 215 229 +14.5
    Feed cost @ $245/metric t $52.68 $56.11 -$3.43
    Barn cost @ $0.10/pig per d housing $10.50 $11.90 -$1.40
    Carcass wt, kg 94 95 +1.0
    Carcass value $127.66 $129.02 +$1.36
Estimated cost of PRRS per pig -$3.47
2) Assumption if same age
    Feed cost @ $245/metric t and 105 d $52.74 $49.65 +$3.09
    Body weight, kg 123 112
    Carcass weight, kg 94 84
    Carcass value 127.66 $114.08 -$13.58
Estimated cost of PRRS per pig -$10.49
1Calculated using 5-yr average (2012–2017) prices: Corn = $4.52/bu; Soybean Meal = $370/t; DDGS = $175/t; Lean hog = $61.59/cwt (USDA-NASS, 2017).
1Upper row = residual correlations. Bottom row = P-values.